He often showed contempt for any opponents; and regularly characterized them as traitors and agents of foreign powers;  subverted freedom of speech and sought to crush any vocal dissidents through such actions as nationalizing the broadcasting system, centralizing the unions under his control and monopolizing the supply of newspaper print. Many modern scholars categorize Peron as a fascist leader. President Franklin D. Roosevelt , "national defense" principles, social views from religion, and even some socialist principles.
According to Ronald Newton, Ludwig Freude, Rodolfo's father, was probably the local representative of the Office Three secret service headed by Joachim von Ribbentrop , with probably more influence than the German ambassador Edmund von Thermann.
Mercante, Domingo Alfredo 1898-1976
Ludwig Freude's house became the meeting place for Nazis and Argentine military officers supporting the Axis. And after the war, Ludwig Freude was investigated over his connection to possible looted Nazi art, cash and precious metals on deposit at two Argentine banks, Banco Germanico and Banco Tournquist. But on 6 September , the Freude investigation was terminated by presidential decree. Belgian collaborationist Pierre Daye became editor of a Peronist magazine. In Nuremberg at that time something was taking place that I personally considered a disgrace and an unfortunate lesson for the future of humanity.
I became certain that the Argentine people also considered the Nuremberg process a disgrace, unworthy of the victors, who behaved as if they hadn't been victorious. Now we realize that they [the Allies] deserved to lose the war. Ambassador George S. Messersmith noted, "There is not as much social discrimination against Jews here as there is right in New York or in most places at home The same goes for the decision of allowing Jewish army privates to celebrate their holidays, which was intended to foster Jewish integration in another traditionally Catholic institution, the army.
The German Argentine community in Argentina is the fourth-largest immigrant group in the country, after the ethnic Spanish and the Italians. Today Argentina has a population of more than , Jewish citizens, the largest in Latin America, the third-largest in the Americas, and the sixth-largest in the world. Since then, more than 45, Jews have immigrated to Israel from Argentina. Divisions among Peronists intensified, and the President's worsening mistrust led to the forced resignation of numerous valuable allies, notably Buenos Aires Province Governor Domingo Mercante.
On 15 April , a terrorist group never identified detonated two bombs in a public rally at Plaza de Mayo , killing 7 and injuring The centrist Radical Civic Union 's Vice-Presidential nominee, Arturo Frondizi , publicly condemned what he considered to be an anti-patriotic decision; as president three years later, however, he himself signed exploration contracts with foreign oil companies.
However, as he spoke before a crowd of thousands, Navy fighter jets flew overhead and dropped bombs into the crowded square below before seeking refuge in Uruguay.
Reminiscent of the incidents in , Peronist crowds ransacked eleven Buenos Aires churches, including the Metropolitan Cathedral. At that point Argentina was more politically polarized than it had been since The landowning elites and other conservatives pointed to an exchange rate that had rocketed from 4 to 30 pesos per dollar and consumer prices that had risen nearly fivefold. They also accused other Peronist leaders of corruption; but, ultimately, though many were prosecuted, none were convicted. Throughout Argentina, Peronism and the very display of Peronist mementos was banned.
Partly in response to these and other excesses, Peronists and moderates in the army organized a counter-coup against Aramburu, in June Eventually settling in Madrid , Spain under the protection of Francisco Franco , he married Isabel in and was admitted back into the Catholic Church in A policeman with an interest in the occult, he won Isabel's trust through their common dislike of Jorge Antonio , a prominent Argentine industrialist and the Peronist movement's main financial backer during their perilous s.
Domingo Mercante — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2
A return of the Popular Union UP in and their victories in congressional elections that year helped lead to the overthrow of the moderate President Arturo Illia , and to the return of dictatorship. Labor agitation increased; the CGTA, in particular, organized opposition to the dictatorship between and , and it would have an important role in the May—June Cordobazo insurrection.
He supported the more militant unions and maintained close links with the Montoneros , a far-left Catholic Peronist group. On 1 June , the Montoneros kidnapped and assassinated former anti-Peronist President Pedro Aramburu in retaliation for the June mass execution of a Peronist uprising against the junta.
He also cultivated ties with conservatives and the far right. Members of the right-wing Tacuara Nationalist Movement , considered the first Argentine guerrilla group, also turned towards him. Founded in the early s, the Tacuaras were a fascist, anti-Semitic and anti-conformist group founded on the model of Primo de Rivera 's Falange , and at first strongly opposed Peronism. This attempt to govern indefinitely against the will of the different political parties united Peronists and their opposition in a joint declaration of 11 November , billed as la Hora del Pueblo The Hour of the People , which called for free and immediate democratic elections to put an end to the political crisis.
The opposition's call for elections led to Levingston's replacement by General Alejandro Lanusse , in March Faced with strong opposition and social conflicts, General Lanusse declared his intention to restore constitutional democracy by , though without Peronist participation. Lanusse proposed the Gran Acuerdo Nacional Great National Agreement in July , which was to find an honorable exit for the military junta without allowing Peronism to participate in the election. Suspend that plan.
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Search for alternatives. General elections were held on 11 March This, along with his social policies, had earned him the opposition of right-wing Peronists, including the trade-unionist bureaucracy. Camouflaged snipers opened fire on the crowd at the airport. The left-wing Peronist Youth Organization and the Montoneros had been trapped. At least 13 people were killed and injured in this episode, which became known as the Ezeiza massacre. He began his third term on 12 October , with Isabel, his wife, as Vice President.
Making this a policy priority, Ber Gelbard crafted a "social pact" in hopes of finding a happy median between the needs of management and labor. Providing a framework for negotiating price controls, guidelines for collective bargaining and a package of subsidies and credits, the pact was promptly signed by the CGT then the largest labor union in South America and management represented by Julio Broner and the CGE. Increasingly frequent collective bargaining agreements in excess of Social Pact wage guidelines and a resurgence in inflation led to growing strain on the viability of the plan by mid, however.
His murder was long attributed to the Montoneros whose record of violence was well-established by then , but it is arguably Argentina's most prominent unsolved mystery. He suffered from an enlarged prostate and heart disease , and by at least one account, he may have been senile by the time he was sworn in for his third term. His wife frequently had to take over as Acting President over the course of the next year.
He also presided over the inaugural of the Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant Latin America's first in April; the reactor, begun while he was in exile, was the fruition of work started in the s by the National Atomic Energy Commission , his landmark bureau. Isabel was on a trade mission to Europe, but returned urgently and was secretly sworn in on an interim basis on 29 June. He was 78 years old. Afterwards the body, dressed in full military uniform, was taken to the Palace of the National Congress , where it lay in state over the next 46 hours, during which more than , people filed past the coffin.
Finally, at on a rainy Thursday, 4 July the funeral procession commenced.
Along the mile route from the Palace to Olivos, hundreds of armed soldiers lining it were assigned to restrain the crowd. As many as 2, foreign journalists covered the ceremony. The funeral cortege reached its final destination two and a half hours later. There, the coffin was greeted by a gun salute. A military junta , headed by General Jorge Videla , took control of the country, establishing the self-styled National Reorganization Process. The junta ramped up the "dirty war", combining widespread persecution of political dissidents with state terrorism.
The death toll rose to thousands at least 9,, with human rights organizations claiming it was closer to 30, Many of these were "the disappeared " desaparecidos , people kidnapped and executed without trial or record. Later Allende attended the presidential inauguration of Campora. In September just a few days before the Chilean coup d'etat he addressed Tendencia Revolucionaria :.
If you want to do as Allende , then look how it goes for Allende. One has to be calm. He praised Allende for his "valiant attitude" of committing suicide. He took note of the role of the United States in instigating the coup by recalling his familiarity with coup-making processes. Pinochet was heading to meet Alfredo Stroessner in Paraguay so the encounter at Argentina was technically a stop over. On 10 June , his tomb was desecrated, and his hands and some personal effects, including his sword, were stolen.
On 17 October , his body was moved to a mausoleum at his former summer residence, rebuilt as a museum, in the Buenos Aires suburb of San Vicente. A few people were injured in incidents as Peronist trade unions fought over access to the ceremony, although police were able to contain the violence enough for the procession to complete its route to the mausoleum. She had attempted to have this DNA analysis performed for 15 years, and the test in November ultimately proved she was not his daughter.
Before her death, she vowed to continue the legal battle to prove she was Peron's biological child. His namesake Peronist movement, to the present day a struggle of ideologically diverse and competing interests, remains the central political development of Argentina since From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Peron disambiguation. His Excellency , General. Eva Duarte m. Wallace Geert Wilders Volodymyr Zelensky. National variants. American Canadian New Zealand.