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Godzilla: The Showa-Era Films, Scary Stories to Tell in the Dark. The Wizard of Oz 4K. It's a Wonderful Life 4K. We measured job crafting using the four-dimensional scale created by Tims et al. The JCS consisted of 21 items assessing four factors: Increasing structural job resources 5 items; e. This scale assesses three factors: vigor 5 items; e. The authors presented evidence for the validity and reliability of the shortened scale.
Non-probabilistic sampling, also known as random accidental sampling Kerlinger, , was used to obtain the sample. The response rate was Cross-tabs and ANOVA analyses comparing participants and non-participants did not suggest significant differences regarding main socio-demographic characteristics.
They were also assured of the confidentiality and anonymity of the data obtained. The following factorial models were tested. Model 1 M1 is based on the empirical results of the first and second studies by Tims et al. Model 2 M2 is the initial formulation and comprises three factors: Increasing job resources F1 and F3 , Decreasing hindering job demands F2 , and Increasing challenging job demands F4.
These two models are therefore nested, and the factors are considered correlated in both models. Model 3 M3 proposes that the items are explained by one general underlying dimension. In addition, two bifactor models were estimated in which it is assumed that a general factor underlies all items and four Model 4, M4 or three Model 5, M5 specific uncorrelated factors, which have been described in the previous M1 and M2. The factor analyses were performed with EQS 6. When a model does not fit well, it is standard practice to incorporate a posteriori changes to achieve a satisfactory fit, provided that the changes have a reasonable theoretical foundation Byrne, By doing so, the initial sample of employees was divided into two sub-samples of employees sample A, calibration and employees sample B, validation.
The same applies to bifactor model M5. Therefore, bifactor models are not consistent with an acceptable theory on job crafting and it is reasonable to continue doing an exploratory analysis modifying a model with a more solid justification as the M1 model.
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The new model 6 i. However, recent studies validating the job crafting scale in other countries e.
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Including these relationships is only legitimate if there is a theoretical justification for doing so. Covariances between the errors should be considered systematic rather than as random error, and may be due to specific characteristics of the items, such as a high degree of content redundancy or overlap Byrne, This was found to be case in the pairs of items mentioned. Thus, if — as detected in the Spanish adaptation — these redundancies are taken into account, then it is possible to assert that the modified four-factor model M4 satisfactorily describes the dimensional structure of the questionnaire in the Spanish sample.
The fit indices of the hierarchical models show a very good fit at each stage. Thus, it can be concluded that factor loadings, structure, and correlations show invariance, and that the questionnaire measures four job crafting dimensions. As in Tims et al. Regarding the items, and after the confirmatory factor and invariance analyses, the final scale obtained for the sample of Spanish employees has 21 items: 5 items for F1, 6 items for F2, 5 items for F3, and 5 items for F4.
Regarding the IRT analysis Figure 1 , F1 and F4 are measured in a similar way: low and medium levels are measured more accurately than high levels there are no adequate items. An inverse pattern occurs in the case of F3, whereas the precision is almost equal at most levels for the F2. Regarding the convergent validity of the JCS Table 4 , it is found that factors F1, F3 and F4 in the two sub-samples correlate positively with vigour, dedication and absorption sub- scales of work engagement hypothesis 2 and 3 and proactivity PPS hypothesis 4.
In addition, factor F2 negatively with the sub-scales of work engagement, though only significantly in the validation sub-sample.
No significant correlation between this factor and proactivity was found. Items adapted from Tims et al. Figure 1.
Job Crafting Scale: Information function continuous line and standard error dotted line. The Spanish Job Crafting Scale SJCS may help researchers to empirically examine this phenomenon in Spain and other Spanish speaking countries to gain more knowledge about its antecedents and consequences. In particular, this refers to every behavior and action aimed at increasing: their skills, learning and professional development increasing structural job resources ; their interaction with and inspiration drawn from supervisors and colleagues increasing social job resources ; and their proactivity in terms of developing new and interesting job demands increasing challenging job demands.
The limitations of the present study will be taken as starting point for new research that we intend to conduct in the future. Basically, three lines of future research have been identified. First, it would be appropriate to carry on analysing the discriminant validity of the SJCS. These distinct characteristics of employees and of their industrial relations, especially in a crisis scenario, may explain differential job crafting forms and behaviours.
Second, also worthy of note is the importance of considering the time dimension of job crafting. In the future, the research will be expanded with new samples of employees and a comparative time analysis. The reason for using self-reports is that employees presumably know themselves best which behaviours they engaged in.
Nevertheless, it may be useful to use other-ratings of job crafting or possible outcomes e. And third, further analysis of the validity of the SJCS criteria will need to be performed. The present study shows that the Spanish version of the Job Crafting Scale has good psychometric properties: the scale has the proposed four-factor structure, and the subscales show satisfactory reliabilities.
The three expansion-oriented job crafting behaviors increasing structural job resources, social job resources, and challenges are positively related to work engagement. However, reducing hindrances is weakly negatively related to work engagement. We conclude that the JCS can be used in Spanish- speaking countries, but that the strategy of reducing job demands should be further investigated in order to reveal its impact on employee well-being and job performance. Bakker, A. Dual processes at work in a call centre: An application of the job demands-resources model.
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European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology , 12 4 , Psicothema , 24, Proactive personality and job performance: The role of job crafting and work engagement. Human relations , 65, Job demands-resources theory. Cooper Eds. Volume III pp. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. Burnout and work engagement: The JD-R approach. Belschak, F. Exploring positive, negative and context-dependent aspects of proactive behaviors at work.
Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology , 83, Berg, J. Crafting a fulfilling job: Bringing passion into work.
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Michigan: Ross School of Business. When callings are calling: Crafting work and leisure in pursuit of unanswered occupational callings. Organization Science , 21, Perceiving and responding to challenges in job crafting at different ranks: When proactivity requires adaptivity.